Plants and Animals
Viola epipsila Northern marsh violet
Small forb of boreal forests in Keweenaw County; stemless, with broadly heart-shaped hairless leaves with coarse, scalloped teeth; flowers blue with a hairless spurred petal and sepals somewhat oblong and abruptly rounded at the tip.
Status and Rank
State Status: E - Endangered (legally protected)
Global Rank: G4G5 - Rank is uncertain, ranging from apparently secure to secure
State Rank: SX - Presumed extirpated
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Information is summarized from MNFI's database of rare species and community occurrences. Data may not reflect true distribution since much of the state has not been thoroughly surveyed.
In Michigan, this species is known only from rich moist woods on Manitou Island, adjacent to the eastern tip of the Keweenaw Peninsula.
Natural Community Types
For each species, lists of natural communities were derived from review of the nearly 6,500 element occurrences in the MNFI database, in addition to herbarium label data for some taxa. In most cases, at least one specimen record exists for each listed natural community. For certain taxa, especially poorly collected or extirpated species of prairie and savanna habitats, natural community lists were derived from inferences from collection sites and habitat preferences in immediately adjacent states (particularly Indiana and Illinois). Natural communities are not listed for those species documented only from altered or ruderal habitats in Michigan, especially for taxa that occur in a variety of habitats outside of the state.
Natural communities are not listed in order of frequency of occurrence, but are rather derived from the full set of natural communities, organized by Ecological Group. In many cases, the general habitat descriptions should provide greater clarity and direction to the surveyor. In future versions of the Rare Species Explorer, we hope to incorporate natural community fidelity ranks for each taxon.
Balsam fir, black spruce, paper birch, speckled alder, bunchberry, mountain maple, wild sarsaparilla, bluebead lily, and starflower.
A status survey is recommended for this somewhat obscure species, which may also occur on the Keweenaw Peninsula mainland and possibly elsewhere in the western Upper Peninsula. Where found, protection of hydrology and maintenance of the forest canopy is likely to be important.
Random meander search covers areas that appear likely to have rare taxa, based on habitat and the judgement of the investigator.
Survey Period: From first week of June to fourth week of July
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- Nelson, J.R. 1987. Rare Plant Surveys: Techniques for Impact Assessment. In: Conservation and management of rare and endangered plants. Ed. T.S. Elias. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 8pp.
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- Holmgren, N.H. 1998. Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the vascular plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 937pp.
- Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Science Publications Botany 4: 1711pp.
- Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. 724pp.