Plants and Animals

Notropis anogenus Pugnose shiner

species photo
Konrad Schmidt

Key Characteristics

The pugnose shiner is a small (38-56 mm) straw colored minnow with a distinctively tiny almost vertical upturned mouth. This species has a complete, slightly de-curved lateral line with 34-38 scales and a dark lateral band that extends from the caudal peduncle, through the eye and around the snout. They have 8 dorsal rays. In addition, the pugnose shiner has a black peritoneum (lining of body cavity) that can be seen through the body wall of preserved specimens.

Status and Rank

US Status: No Status/Not Listed
State Status: E - Endangered (legally protected)
Global Rank: G3 - Vulnerable
State Rank: S1S2 - Rank is uncertain, ranging from critically imperiled to imperiled


CountyNumber of OccurrencesYear Last Observed
Alpena 2 1991
Barry 4 1978
Branch 2 1948
Calhoun 4 1994
Cass 1 2002
Cheboygan 5 1995
Gladwin 1 1953
Hillsdale 2 1994
Ingham 1 1962
Ionia 1 2016
Kalamazoo 2 2002
Kent 2 1955
Leelanau 1 1949
Lenawee 2 1964
Macomb 1 1894
Manistee 1 1932
Mecosta 1 1952
Montmorency 1 1991
Newaygo 3 1985
Oakland 5 2018
Otsego 1 1925
Presque Isle 1 1925
Shiawassee 1 1987
St. Clair 4 2018
St. Joseph 1 2011
Van Buren 1 1952
Washtenaw 1 1938
Wayne 2 1894

Information is summarized from MNFI's database of rare species and community occurrences. Data may not reflect true distribution since much of the state has not been thoroughly surveyed.


The Pugnose shiner inhabits clear vegetated lakes and vegetated pools and runs of low gradient streams and rivers. They appear to be extremely intolerant to turbidity.

Specific Habitat Needs

Macrophytes needed in: Inland lake, littoral, midwater; 

Macrophytes, quiet waters needed in: Mainstem stream (3rd-4th order), pool; Mainstem stream (3rd-4th order), run; 

Natural Community Types

  • Inland lake, littoral, midwater
  • Mainstem stream (3rd-4th order), pool
  • Mainstem stream (3rd-4th order), run

For each species, lists of natural communities were derived from review of the nearly 6,500 element occurrences in the MNFI database, in addition to herbarium label data for some taxa. In most cases, at least one specimen record exists for each listed natural community. For certain taxa, especially poorly collected or extirpated species of prairie and savanna habitats, natural community lists were derived from inferences from collection sites and habitat preferences in immediately adjacent states (particularly Indiana and Illinois). Natural communities are not listed for those species documented only from altered or ruderal habitats in Michigan, especially for taxa that occur in a variety of habitats outside of the state.

Natural communities are not listed in order of frequency of occurrence, but are rather derived from the full set of natural communities, organized by Ecological Group. In many cases, the general habitat descriptions should provide greater clarity and direction to the surveyor. In future versions of the Rare Species Explorer, we hope to incorporate natural community fidelity ranks for each taxon.

Management Recommendations

The pugnose shiner is naturally rare throughout its range. Pugnose shiner habitats tend to be difficult to sample effectively, which may present an inadequate picture of their population status. This species is susceptible to turbidity. To manage for this species practices that remove or decrease macrophyte abundance, change sediment transport, and modify shoreline or riparian areas should be limited.

Active Period

Spawning from first week of June to fourth week of July

Survey Methods


Survey Period: From first week of April to fourth week of September

Minnow traps

Survey Period: From first week of April to fourth week of September


Survey Period: From first week of April to fourth week of September

Trap or fyke nets

Survey Period: From first week of April to fourth week of September


Survey References

  • Murphy, B.R. and D.W. Willis, eds. 1996. Fisheries Techniques, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda. 732pp.

Technical References

  • Bailey, R.M., W.C. Latta, and G.R. Smith. 2004. An Atlas of Michigan Fishes. Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, No. 192, Ann Arbor. 215p.
  • Derosier, A.L. 2004. Special Animal Abstract for Notropis anogenus (Pugnose shiner). Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 2pp.
  • Page, L. M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432pp.
  • Parker, B., P. McKee, and R.R. Campbell. 1987. Status of the silver chub, Hybopsis storeriana, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 101(2):190-194.
  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bulletin 184, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966pp.
  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany. 522pp.
  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The Fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Chicago. 314 pp.
  • Trautman, M.B. 1981. The Fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus. 782pp.

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