Photo by Ryan P. O'Connor
Small orchid (10-20 cm) of disturbed thickets with two ovate basal leaves; flowers purple, clustered on a tall stalk.
Status and Rank
- State Status: SC - Special Concern (rare or uncertain; not legally protected)
- State Rank: S3 - Vulnerable
- Global Rank: G5 - Secure
|County Name||Number of Occurrences||Year Last Observed|
Updated 05/08/2013. Information is summarized from MNFI's database of rare species and community occurrences. Data may not reflect true distribution since much of the state has not been thoroughly surveyed.
Purple twayblade is found in a wide variety of habitats, though almost always in sites that are at least moderately disturbed ranging from old fields and successional thickets to young second-growth hardwoods. It may even be found in abandoned pine plantations and beneath monocultures of invasive shrubs like autumn-olive. Moisture conditions may range from slightly damp to dry-mesic.
Natural Community Types
- Mesic southern forest
- Dry-mesic southern forest
- Oak openings
- Southern shrub-carr
- Hillside prairie
- Lakeplain oak openings
- Oak barrens
Sugar maple, red maple, American elm, trembling aspen, Eastern redcedar, autumn-olive, honey suckle, big bluestem, Indian grass, ebony spleenwort, wild geranium, Virginia creeper, early goldenrod, showy goldenrod, and bush-clovers.
This species needs openings and early stages of succession. It tolerates very little competition and likely benefits from activities that maintain savanna-like conditions such as prescribed burning and brush clearing.
General Survey Guidelines
Random meander search covers areas that appear likely to have rare taxa, based on habitat and the judgement of the investigator.
- Meander search
Survey Period: From first week of June to fourth week of June
More InformationSee MNFI Species Abstract
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- Nelson, J.R. 1984. Rare Plant Field Survey Guidelines. In: J.P. Smith and R. York. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 3rd Ed. California Native Plant Society, Berkeley. 174pp.
- Nelson, J.R. 1986. Rare Plant Surveys: Techniques For Impact Assessment. Natural Areas Journal 5(3):18-30.
- Nelson, J.R. 1987. Rare Plant Surveys: Techniques for Impact Assessment. In: Conservation and management of rare and endangered plants. Ed. T.S. Elias. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 8pp.
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- Gray, A. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany; eighth ed. Van Nostrand Reinghold, New York. 1632pp.
- Holmgren, N.H. 1998. Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the vascular plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 937pp.
- Homoya, M.A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. 276pp.
- Luer, C.A. 1975. The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, Excluding Florida. Native Orchids U.S. & Canada. Barrons Educational Series, Hauppauge.
- Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1986. Guide to the Vascular Flora of Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. 507pp.
- Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region, 4th ed. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. 921pp.
- Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. 488pp.
- Whiting, R.E. and P.M. Catling. 1986. Orchids of Ontario. The CanaColl Foundation, Ottawa. 169pp.