Trillium sessile
Toadshade
Image of Trillium sessile

Photo by Bradford S. Slaughter 

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Key Characteristics

Medium-sized forb (40 cm) of rich woods; leaves broadly oval (3-6 cm wide), sessile, strongly mottled; flowers sessile, dark red, petals short (>4 cm).

Status and Rank

  • State Status: T
  • State Rank: S2S3
  • Global Rank: G4G5

Occurrences

County NameNumber of OccurrencesYear Last Observed
Berrien52012
Cass11932
Kalamazoo12002
Lenawee61991
Oakland11918
St. Joseph11947
Van Buren11981
Washtenaw21999
Distribution map for Trillium sessile

Updated 7/21/2017. Information is summarized from MNFI's database of rare species and community occurrences. Data may not reflect true distribution since much of the state has not been thoroughly surveyed.

Habitat

Toadshade is found in floodplains and mesic forests, especially moist ravines, rich moist woods and bluffs, and is especially frequent on limestone derived soils.

Natural Community Types

Methodology

For each species, lists of natural communities were derived from review of the nearly 6,500 element occurrences in the MNFI database, in addition to herbarium label data for some taxa. In most cases, at least one specimen record exists for each listed natural community. For certain taxa, especially poorly collected or extirpated species of prairie and savanna habitats, natural community lists were derived from inferences from collection sites and habitat preferences in immediately adjacent states (particularly Indiana and Illinois). Natural communities are not listed for those species documented only from altered or ruderal habitats in Michigan, especially for taxa that occur in a variety of habitats outside of the state.

Natural communities are not listed in order of frequency of occurrence, but are rather derived from the full set of natural communities, organized by Ecological Group. In many cases, the general habitat descriptions should provide greater clarity and direction to the surveyor. In future versions of the Rare Species Explorer, we hope to incorporate natural community fidelity ranks for each taxon.

Associated Plants

Beech, sugar maple, basswood, tulip poplar, white ash, bitternut hickory, wild leek, cut-leaved toothwort, dutchman's breeches, yellow trout lily, Virginia waterleaf, false rue anemone, woodland phlox, common trillium, ginseng, goldenseal, pawpaw, blue ash, red ash, Kentucky coffeetree, wahoo, false rue anemone, bluebells, and sessile trillium.

Management

Conserve hydrology of river system and corresponding cyclical floodplain regime. Maintain healthy intact, mature floodplain forests and minimize forest fragmentation. Monitor and control invasive species, particularly garlic mustard and dame's rocket. When possible, leave large tracts of unharvested forests and allow natural processes to operate unhindered.

General Survey Guidelines

Random meander search covers areas that appear likely to have rare taxa, based on habitat and the judgement of the investigator.

Survey Methods

Page Citation

Michigan Natural Features Inventory. 2007. Rare Species Explorer (Web Application). Available online at http://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/explorer [Accessed Oct 21, 2017]

References

Survey References

Technical References

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