Photo by Robert W. Freckmann
Biennial forb (50 cm) of sandy open woodlands; numerous lanceolate, entire, hairless leaves clasp the stem; basal leaves deeply pinnately lobed; fruit sickle-shaped, spreading.
Status and Rank
- State Status: SC
- State Rank: S2
- Global Rank: G5T3?Q
|County Name||Number of Occurrences||Year Last Observed|
Updated 1/31/2017. Information is summarized from MNFI's database of rare species and community occurrences. Data may not reflect true distribution since much of the state has not been thoroughly surveyed.
Occurs in sandy, open woodlands and savannas, occasionally in association with coastal plain marshes, borrow pits in lakeplain prairies, and oak-pine woodlands.
Natural Community Types
- Dry-mesic southern forest
- Oak barrens
- Lakeplain wet-mesic prairie
- Wet-mesic sand prairie
- Dry northern forest
- Dry sand prairie
- Dry southern forest
- Dry-mesic northern forest
- Dry-mesic prairie
- Hillside prairie
- Lakeplain oak openings
- Mesic sand prairie
- Oak openings
- Oak-pine barrens
- Pine barrens
For each species, lists of natural communities were derived from review of the nearly 6,500 element occurrences in the MNFI database, in addition to herbarium label data for some taxa. In most cases, at least one specimen record exists for each listed natural community. For certain taxa, especially poorly collected or extirpated species of prairie and savanna habitats, natural community lists were derived from inferences from collection sites and habitat preferences in immediately adjacent states (particularly Indiana and Illinois). Natural communities are not listed for those species documented only from altered or ruderal habitats in Michigan, especially for taxa that occur in a variety of habitats outside of the state.
Natural communities are not listed in order of frequency of occurrence, but are rather derived from the full set of natural communities, organized by Ecological Group. In many cases, the general habitat descriptions should provide greater clarity and direction to the surveyor. In future versions of the Rare Species Explorer, we hope to incorporate natural community fidelity ranks for each taxon.
Sassafras, sumac, white oak, white pine, rockrose, little bluestem, big bluestem, sedge (Carex muhlenbergii), poverty grass, June grass, and pinweed.
Requires maintenance of hydrology and natural disturbance processes. It may also require prescribed fire to maintain openings and colonization areas.
General Survey Guidelines
Random meander search covers areas that appear likely to have rare taxa, based on habitat and the judgment of the investigator.
- Meander search
Survey Period: From first week of May to fourth week of July
Survey Comments: Both flowers and fruit needed
- Elzinga, C.L., D.W. Salzer, and J.W. Willoughby. 1998. Measuring and Monitoring Plant Populations. The Nature Conservancy and Bureau of Land Management, Denver. BLM Technical Reference 1730-1. 477pp.
- Goff, G.F., G.A. Dawson, and J.J. Rochow. 1982. Site examination for Threatened and Endangered plant species. Environmental Management 6(4): 307-316
- Nelson, J.R. 1984. Rare Plant Field Survey Guidelines. In: J.P. Smith and R. York. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 3rd Ed. California Native Plant Society, Berkeley. 174pp.
- Nelson, J.R. 1986. Rare Plant Surveys: Techniques For Impact Assessment. Natural Areas Journal 5(3):18-30.
- Nelson, J.R. 1987. Rare Plant Surveys: Techniques for Impact Assessment. In: Conservation and management of rare and endangered plants. Ed. T.S. Elias. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 8pp.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2010. Flora of North America, North of Mexico. Volume 7: Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford Univ. Press. New York, NY. 797 pp.
- Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second edition. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 910pp.
- Gray, A. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany; eighth ed. Van Nostrand Reinghold, New York. 1632pp.
- Holmgren, N.H. 1998. Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the vascular plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 937pp.
- Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. 724pp.