Photo by Susan R. Crispin
Tall perennial forb (up to 1.5 m) of open calcareous wetlands; leaves elliptical with arching parallel veins; flowers white, borne in flat-topped cluster.
Status and Rank
- State Status: SC - Special Concern (rare or uncertain; not legally protected)
- State Rank: S3 - Vulnerable
- Global Rank: G4G5 - Rank is uncertain, ranging from apparently secure to secure
|County Name||Number of Occurrences||Year Last Observed|
Updated 9/4/2014. Information is summarized from MNFI's database of rare species and community occurrences. Data may not reflect true distribution since much of the state has not been thoroughly surveyed.
Occurs in a variety of moist, calcareous open habitat including fens, prairies, sedge meadows, and calcareous lakeshores.
Natural Community Types
- Lakeplain wet prairie
- Prairie fen
- Coastal fen
- Lakeplain wet-mesic prairie
- Northern fen
- Northern wet meadow
- Southern wet meadow
- Limestone cobble shore
Bluejoint grass, cordgrass, rush, sedges, twig-rush, shrubby cinquefoil, swamp milkweed, big bluestem, Indian grass, Sullivant's milkweed, purple milkweed, swamp thistle, eastern prairie fringed orchid, marsh blazing star, whorled loosestrife, grass-of-Parnassus, smooth hedge nettle, swamp rose, Missouri ironweed, joe-pye weed, common bone set, spike-rush.
Requires protection of hydrology, groundwater source, and natural disturbance regime. This species benefits from management that includes prescribed fire and brush removal, which maintains open habitat and reduces competing woody vegetation. Control invasive species, particularly glossy buckthorn, a common invader of this type of habitat. Protect habitat from being drained and developed.
General Survey Guidelines
Random meander search covers areas that appear likely to have rare taxa, based on habitat and the judgment of the investigator.
- Meander search
Survey Period: From fourth week of June to third week of October
Survey Comments: Best sought during blooming period in July
More InformationSee MNFI Species Abstract
- Elzinga, C.L., D.W. Salzer, and J.W. Willoughby. 1998. Measuring and Monitoring Plant Populations. The Nature Conservancy and Bureau of Land Management, Denver. BLM Technical Reference 1730-1. 477pp.
- Goff, G.F., G.A. Dawson, and J.J. Rochow. 1982. Site examination for Threatened and Endangered plant species. Environmental Management 6(4): 307-316
- Nelson, J.R. 1984. Rare Plant Field Survey Guidelines. In: J.P. Smith and R. York. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 3rd Ed. California Native Plant Society, Berkeley. 174pp.
- Nelson, J.R. 1986. Rare Plant Surveys: Techniques For Impact Assessment. Natural Areas Journal 5(3):18-30.
- Nelson, J.R. 1987. Rare Plant Surveys: Techniques for Impact Assessment. In: Conservation and management of rare and endangered plants. Ed. T.S. Elias. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 8pp.
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- Coffin, B. and L. Pfannmuller, eds. 1988. Minnesota's Endangered Flora and Fauna. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 473pp.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006. Flora of North America, North of Mexico. Volume 20: Magnoliophyta: Asteridae (in part): Asteraceae, part 2. Oxford University Press, New York. 666pp.
- Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second edition. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 910pp.
- Gray, A. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany; eighth ed. Van Nostrand Reinghold, New York. 1632pp.
- Holmgren, N.H. 1998. Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the vascular plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 937pp.
- Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region, 4th ed. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. 921pp.
- Voss, E.G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III. Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. 622pp.