Photo by Ryan P. O'Connor
Tall forb (1-1.5 m) of open dry woods; leaves opposite, sessile, and heart-shaped at the base; flowers white, borne in heads in open flat-topped clusters.
Status and Rank
- State Status: T
- State Rank: S1
- Global Rank: G5
|County Name||Number of Occurrences||Year Last Observed|
Updated 1/31/2017. Information is summarized from MNFI's database of rare species and community occurrences. Data may not reflect true distribution since much of the state has not been thoroughly surveyed.
Found in remnant oak forests and oak savannas in southern Lower Michigan, often on wooded slopes and in steep topography.
Natural Community Types
- Dry-mesic southern forest
- Dry-mesic northern forest
- Hillside prairie
- Oak barrens
- Oak openings
- Oak-pine barrens
For each species, lists of natural communities were derived from review of the nearly 6,500 element occurrences in the MNFI database, in addition to herbarium label data for some taxa. In most cases, at least one specimen record exists for each listed natural community. For certain taxa, especially poorly collected or extirpated species of prairie and savanna habitats, natural community lists were derived from inferences from collection sites and habitat preferences in immediately adjacent states (particularly Indiana and Illinois). Natural communities are not listed for those species documented only from altered or ruderal habitats in Michigan, especially for taxa that occur in a variety of habitats outside of the state.
Natural communities are not listed in order of frequency of occurrence, but are rather derived from the full set of natural communities, organized by Ecological Group. In many cases, the general habitat descriptions should provide greater clarity and direction to the surveyor. In future versions of the Rare Species Explorer, we hope to incorporate natural community fidelity ranks for each taxon.
Sassafras, black oak, white oak, red oak, pignut hickory, black cherry, chokecherry, witch hazel, redbud, fragrant sumac, green brier, Virginia creeper, bluestem goldenrod, Virginia snakeroot, wild licorice, jumpseed, enchanter's nightshade, lopseed, and horse-gentian.
May require management that maintains and perpetuates oak savanna habitat, particularly prescribed fire. This species occurs within relatively closed-canopy forests but likely occurred within a savanna/barrens landscape prior to European settlement.
General Survey Guidelines
Random meander search covers areas that appear likely to have rare taxa, based on habitat and the judgment of the investigator.
- Meander search
Survey Period: From fourth week of July to fourth week of September
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