Endodeca serpentaria
Virginia snakeroot
Image of Endodeca serpentaria

Photo by Adrienne L. Bozic 

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Key Characteristics

Low arching forb (50 cm) of forests; leaves narrowly heart-shaped; flowers dark purple, tubular, borne near ground on leafless stalks.

Status and Rank

  • State Status: T
  • State Rank: S2
  • Global Rank: G4


County NameNumber of OccurrencesYear Last Observed
St. Joseph21981
Van Buren11906
Distribution map for Endodeca serpentaria

Updated 5/15/2018. Information is summarized from MNFI's database of rare species and community occurrences. Data may not reflect true distribution since much of the state has not been thoroughly surveyed.


This plant occurs in a variety of habitats, usually in dry-mesic forests above streams or wetlands, but can also be found at the margins of floodplain forests at the bases of terrace slopes and in rich mesic woods.

Natural Community Types


For each species, lists of natural communities were derived from review of the nearly 6,500 element occurrences in the MNFI database, in addition to herbarium label data for some taxa. In most cases, at least one specimen record exists for each listed natural community. For certain taxa, especially poorly collected or extirpated species of prairie and savanna habitats, natural community lists were derived from inferences from collection sites and habitat preferences in immediately adjacent states (particularly Indiana and Illinois). Natural communities are not listed for those species documented only from altered or ruderal habitats in Michigan, especially for taxa that occur in a variety of habitats outside of the state.

Natural communities are not listed in order of frequency of occurrence, but are rather derived from the full set of natural communities, organized by Ecological Group. In many cases, the general habitat descriptions should provide greater clarity and direction to the surveyor. In future versions of the Rare Species Explorer, we hope to incorporate natural community fidelity ranks for each taxon.

Associated Plants

Red oak, pignut and shagbark hickory, sassafras, Virginia creeper, hepatica, jumpseed, woodland goldenrod, sweet cicely, tulip tree, redbud, wild geranium, hepatica, prickly-ash, poison ivy, hairy yellow violet, big leaf aster, mayapple, silver maple, Eastern cottonwood, willow, red ash, red mulberry, spicebush, wild ginger, green dragon, and nodding wild onion.


Management in this habitat type that may impact this species is poorly known. The species may be vulnerable to excessive logging, and is likely adversely affected by invasive species establishment.

General Survey Guidelines

Random meander search covers areas that appear likely to have rare taxa, based on habitat and the judgment of the investigator.

Survey Methods

Page Citation

Michigan Natural Features Inventory. 2007. Rare Species Explorer (Web Application). Available online at http://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/explorer [Accessed Aug 16, 2018]

More Information

See MNFI Species Abstract


Survey References

Technical References

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