Plants and Animals

Flexamia reflexa Leafhopper

Key Characteristics

This leafhopper is ivory white and has a vertex that is strongly produced. The wings, which have rounded tips and cover at least half of the abdomen, have 2 or 3 black reflexed veins on the outer margin and the thorax is without transverse bands. The body is not pitted and the eyes are separated more than the width of one eye. The crown is flattened and is not wider than 2 times its length.

Status and Rank

US Status:
State Status: SC - Special Concern (rare or uncertain; not legally protected)
Global Rank: GNR - Not ranked
State Rank: S1 - Critically imperiled

Occurrences

CountyNumber of OccurrencesYear Last Observed
Kalamazoo11994
Lenawee11990
Monroe11994
St. Clair32017
Wayne12014

Information is summarized from MNFI's database of rare species and community occurrences. Data may not reflect true distribution since much of the state has not been thoroughly surveyed.

Habitat

This leafhopper may also be found in hay pastures, rights-of-way, and savanna that support its host plant, indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans).

For each species, lists of natural communities were derived from review of the nearly 6,500 element occurrences in the MNFI database, in addition to herbarium label data for some taxa. In most cases, at least one specimen record exists for each listed natural community. For certain taxa, especially poorly collected or extirpated species of prairie and savanna habitats, natural community lists were derived from inferences from collection sites and habitat preferences in immediately adjacent states (particularly Indiana and Illinois). Natural communities are not listed for those species documented only from altered or ruderal habitats in Michigan, especially for taxa that occur in a variety of habitats outside of the state.

Natural communities are not listed in order of frequency of occurrence, but are rather derived from the full set of natural communities, organized by Ecological Group. In many cases, the general habitat descriptions should provide greater clarity and direction to the surveyor. In future versions of the Rare Species Explorer, we hope to incorporate natural community fidelity ranks for each taxon.

Management Recommendations

Mowing should be limited to early spring and late fall and only when needed. Prescribed burning may be conducted to control shrub invasion but should be done on a rotational basis. The fire intensity should be such that succession is set back but the host plant, indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), is able to regenerate and thrive. Generally, insecticides and herbicides should not be applied, however, selective treatment of woody vegetation (e.g. basal stem or stump application) may be an option to control these plants where prescribed burning is not feasible. The hydrology should be protected and incompatible land uses (e.g. conversion to agriculture, residential or commercial development, etc.) prohibited.

Active Period

Active from third week of April to third week of October

Survey Methods

The best way to survey for this leafhopper is to use a standard insect sweep net in suitable habitat (i.e. supports indian grass). Several sweep samples may be needed to detect adults of this species in an area because they may only occupy small portions of available habitat.

Sweep net

Survey Period: From third week of July to fourth week of September

Time of Day: Daytime

References

Survey References

  • Martin, J.E.H. 1977. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada (Part 1): Collecting, preparing, and preserving insects, mites, and spiders. Publication 1643. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa.

Technical References

  • Poole, R.W. and P. Gentili (eds.). 1997. Nomina Insecta Nearctica: a checklist of the insects of North America. Volume 4 (non-holometabolous orders). Entomological Information Services, Rockville, MD. Available online at: http://www.nearctica.com/nomina/nomina.htm [Accessed 2005-11-05]