|White or prairie false indigo|
Photo by TNC Staff
Large perennial forb (up to 1.5 m) of prairies, savannas, and woodland; stems leafy, branching, and hairless, often blue-gray in color, bearing compound leaves with 3 small elliptic leaflets; flowers white; fruit an ovoid pod 2-3 cm long.
Status and Rank
- State Status: SC - Special Concern (rare or uncertain; not legally protected)
- State Rank: S3 - Vulnerable
- Global Rank: G4Q - Apparently secure. Questionable taxonomy that may reduce conservation priority
|County Name||Number of Occurrences||Year Last Observed|
Updated 05/08/2013. Information is summarized from MNFI's database of rare species and community occurrences. Data may not reflect true distribution since much of the state has not been thoroughly surveyed.
Occurs in dry to mesic prairies and savannas, dry open roadsides, along railroads, and in fencerows. Most records consist of a few plants.
Natural Community Types
- Oak openings
- Mesic prairie
- Wet prairie
- Wet-mesic prairie
- Wet-mesic sand prairie
- Bur oak plains
- Dry southern forest
- Dry-mesic prairie
- Mesic sand prairie
- Oak barrens
- Dry-mesic southern forest
Black oak, white oak, bur oak, bitternut hickory, pignut hickory, shagbark hickory, leadplant, butterfly weed, big bluestem, little bluestem, cordgrass, prairie coreopsis, wild geranium, pale-leaved sunflower, false boneset, smooth sumac, rosin weed, yellow-pimpernel, hoary vervain, prairie violet, golden alexanders, prairie dock, rattlesnake master, and poverty oat grass.
Protect habitat and hydrological and natural disturbance regimes. This species likely requires natural disturbances associated with prairie habitat such as fire or brush removal to prevent woody plant succession. Significant increases in vegetative and reproductive vigor have been observed following early spring and fall burns; late spring burns and summer can damage plants. Much of this habitat type has been lost or severely degraded. Many prairie remnants are vulnerable to common right-of-way maintenance activities such as mowing, herbiciding, and bulldozing.
General Survey Guidelines
Random meander search covers areas that appear likely to have rare taxa, based on habitat and the judgment of the investigator.
- Meander search
Survey Period: From first week of July to fourth week of August
- Elzinga, C.L., D.W. Salzer, and J.W. Willoughby. 1998. Measuring and Monitoring Plant Populations. The Nature Conservancy and Bureau of Land Management, Denver. BLM Technical Reference 1730-1. 477pp.
- Goff, G.F., G.A. Dawson, and J.J. Rochow. 1982. Site examination for Threatened and Endangered plant species. Environmental Management 6(4): 307-316
- Nelson, J.R. 1984. Rare Plant Field Survey Guidelines. In: J.P. Smith and R. York. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 3rd Ed. California Native Plant Society, Berkeley. 174pp.
- Nelson, J.R. 1986. Rare Plant Surveys: Techniques For Impact Assessment. Natural Areas Journal 5(3):18-30.
- Nelson, J.R. 1987. Rare Plant Surveys: Techniques for Impact Assessment. In: Conservation and management of rare and endangered plants. Ed. T.S. Elias. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 8pp.
- Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second edition. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 910pp.
- Gray, A. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany; eighth ed. Van Nostrand Reinghold, New York. 1632pp.
- Holmgren, N.H. 1998. Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the vascular plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. 937pp.
- Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region, 4th ed. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. 921pp.
- Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. 724pp.